páramo ecuador

Annual rainfall ranges from 500 to 3,000 millimetres (20 to 118 in). D'autres familles importantes sont les Apiaceae, Blecnaceae, Brassicaceae, Bromeliaceae, Campanulaceae, Cyperaceae, Dicranaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Ericaceae, Eriocaulaceae, Escrofulariaceae, Gentianaceae, Haloragaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae, Lentibulariaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Lobeliaceae, Loganiaceae, Melastomataceae, Onagraceae, Plantaginaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Violaceae et les Valerianaceae. Organic content, even within disturbed sites averages very high which contributes to water retention in the soil. [14] Cependant, une conservation efficace et humaine ne pourra être atteint qu'avec des changements structurels sur le plan politique, éducatif et social. 3800 und 4700 m Höhe in feuchtem Klima vor. The Costa Rican páramo in Costa Rica and Panama is another páramo ecoregion. L'écosystème abrite environ 5000 espèces de plantes différentes. Páramo is an alpine tundra ecosystem which is located in the northern Andes of South America and adjacent southern Central America. During the later parts of the Quaternary epoch a series of short, cold and dry glacial periods alternated with warmer and more humid interglacial periods. Les montagnes et les lacs ont été au cœur de la religion andine. La biodiversité aquatique des paramos d’Équateur, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Paramo_(biotope)&oldid=168670480, Catégorie Commons avec lien local différent sur Wikidata, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Paramo de la Cordillère centrale (sud Équateur et le nord du Pérou) ), Paramo de la Cordillère de Mérida (Venezuela), Paramo du Costa Rica ou páramo Talamanca (Costa Rica, Panama). [2] Plant communities in this vegetation zone are also known to include thickets that are mainly composed of shrubby or woody vegetation, including species from the genera Ilex, Ageratina, and Baccharis. Le paramo est un biotope néotropical d'altitude, qu'on trouve dans la Cordillère des Andes, entre la limite des forêts et les neiges éternelles. The flora of these two is closer to the Páramos de Chirripó of Central America than to the rest of the Northern Andean páramo, despite their being separated by the Cesar River valley. Páramo ecosystems are also found in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta in Colombia, and in the regions of Huehuetenango and El Quiché of Guatemala in the Sierra de los Cuchumatanes. [1] 0 Comments. 04 Sep 2019 Feature. Hummingbirds, bees and flies are all important pollinators in the páramo, while birds and smaller mammals such as rabbits and guinea pigs are important seed dispersers. [4] The boundary between the treeline and the páramo is usually higher on the wetter, windward side of the mountains. The flora of páramos is adapted to specific conditions and is thus vulnerable to even small climatic change. 0 Comments. Páramo is een neotropisch alpine ecosysteem in het hoge deel van de Andes, tussen de boomgrens op ongeveer 3500 meter hoogte en de sneeuwgrens op ongeveer 5000 meter hoogte. Deforestation has been extensive and in some cases, like the northern Andes, 90-95% of forests have been cleared. Grass páramo grows at altitudes of about 3,500–4,100 metres (11,500–13,500 ft) and mostly contains tussock grass or bunch grass of Calamagrostis or Festuca species. The most broadly described zone is the grass páramo. Recent developments such as construction of aqueducts, drainage systems, and roads, mining, and afforestation have been a huge additional páramo disturbance. Quito Light of the Americas. This has altered forest lines, often lowering them by several hundred meters, which has also affected the zoning habitats for many animals. [11], Vegetation consists of high alpine grasslands, bogs and open meadows. [7], Páramo climates differ slightly depending on the specific location. Het ecosysteem bestaat uit hoogvlakten met meren, veen en grasland, doorsneden door door gletsjers gevormde valleien en afgewisseld door begroeiing met struiken en kleine bossen. Soils in the south Ecuadorian páramo are characterized broadly into Andisols, Inceptisols, Histosols, Entisols, and Mollisols. [14] Le plus grand paramo du monde est Sumapaz. Subpáramo is the lowest and most diverse zone. The ecoregion is part of the Northern Andean Paramo global ecoregion, which also includes the Cordillera Central páramo, Santa Marta páramo and Cordillera de Merida páramo terrestrial ecoregions. The Northern Andean páramos experience temperatures that may drop below freezing at night and rise to 30 °C (86 °F) during the day. Total 1,698. La ligne de forêt naturelle est gravement altérée par l'activité humaine (exploitation forestière, brûlage répété, pâturage intensif), ce qui rend la différence entre les prairies naturelles et artificielles difficile à distinguer. They do not retain water and are highly infertile. Páramo Brauhaus una cervecería artesanal ecuatoriana con raíces alemanes por su co-f Show More See All. The warming that began about 10,000 years ago at the start of the Holocene epoch caused the forest line to rise, pushing the páramo belt upward and reducing its area. [2] Due to its localization on high mountains, this area is the least disturbed by humans and contains the most endemic species of all the zones. [7], As recently as 14,000 years ago the temperatures were 6–7 °C (43–45 °F) below those of today, and the páramo belt began at an elevation of 2,000 metres (6,600 ft). [4], A 2013 analysis of the páramo units in Colombia evaluated similarities between their endemic flora. Les animaux présentent eux aussi d'importantes adaptations majeures pour garder leur chaleur comme des couches épaisses et des couleurs foncées. La grenouille appelée en Équateur "jambato" (Atelopus ignescens) a été abondante jusqu'à ces dernières années, mais à ce jour complètement éteinte. This picture may be simplistic, since species that are less sensitive to temperature changes may have moved less than those that are more sensitive, so the composition of the belts may have changed. La végétation se compose principalement de touffes d'herbes, de rosettes, d'arbustes nains et de plantes en coussinet et de rosettes géantes remarquables telles que Espeletia et Puya. Des plantations ont également été effectuées, parfois à l'échelle industrielle, d'espèces exotiques ligneuses, en particulier le pin de Monterey (Pinus radiata), qui ont une incidence négative sur les écosystèmes et la diversité des sols. During the present warmer Holocene epoch the páramos have migrated uphill, shrinking and becoming isolated. [5] [1] Zude… Scattered throughout the regions between 11°N and 8°Slatitude… [14], "High Above Sea Level, Evolutionary Hot Spots", "Guatemala's Altos de Chiantla: Changes on the High Frontier", "La Sierra de Santo Domingo: "Biogeographic reconstructions for the Quaternary of a former snowy mountain range, "Clay mineralogy of the soils in the south Ecuadorian páramo region", Decisión de la Corte frena 347 títulos mineros en páramos, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Páramo&oldid=981207092, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 September 2020, at 22:40. Les rivières descendant du paramo sont caractérisées par un débit de base élevé et soutenu. Le réchauffement de la planète affecte également l'écosystème de deux façons : d'abord, la fonte des glaciers qui affecte le stockage et la distribution d'eau, d'autre part, les caractéristiques des sols dépendent du maintien d'une température basse. The Andes also play a key role in the climate of these regions as they cause an orographic uplift in which moist air rises. Dans le paramo proprement dit (3100 - 4100 m), les prairies dominent et des zones avec des espèces ligneuses telles que Polylepis et Gynoxys n'existent que dans des endroits abrités et le long de cours d'eau. 04 Sep 2019 Uncategorized. [2] Recently, there has been an increase in Andisol soils, largely due to more volcanic activity[10] These soils have a very high water retention rate, which contributes to the rise in cultivation and differential land use. Les plus importants sont le stockage du Carbone organique total et l'approvisionnement en eau. It has continuous vegetation and plant cover with a "yellowish to olive–brown" look due to the combination of dead and living grasses. Die größten Páramo-Gebiete reichen von Kolumbien über Ecuador bis in den Norden Perus. [3], There are many types of soil due to the diverse geology of the Andes, but most are fairly young. [11] The term "páramo" is sometimes used to refer to this specific type. L'isolement et la fragmentation du paramo sur les hauts plateaux andins favorise une haute spéciation et un endémisme exceptionnellement élevé. Scattered throughout the regions between 11°N and 8°S latitudes, these ecosystems are located mainly in the northwest corner of South America, in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. [12], The World Wildlife Fund gives the Northern Andean páramo the status of "Relatively Stable/Intact". [7] While they are generally cold and humid ecosystems, they often undergo a sudden and drastic change in weather in which they fluctuate between temperatures from below freezing to as high as 30 °C (86 °F). Amphibians have been well documented in páramo ecosystems, including salamanders such as Bolitoglossa species and frogs such as Pristimantis and Atelopus species.

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