Egypt and several other Arab nations joined the anti-Iraq coalition and contributed forces to the military buildup, known as Operation Desert Shield. In the aftermath of Iraq’s defeat, Kurds in the north of the country and Shīʿites in the south rose in a rebellion that was suppressed by Saddam with great brutality. Iraq’s leader, Saddam Hussein, ordered the invasion and occupation of Kuwait with the apparent aim of acquiring that nation’s large oil reserves, canceling a large debt Iraq owed Kuwait, and expanding Iraqi power in the region. Following Iraq's refusal to withdraw from Kuwait, coalition aircraft began striking targets in Iraq and Kuwait on January 17, 1991. On November 29 the UN Security Council authorized the use of force against Iraq if it did not withdraw from Kuwait by January 15, 1991. The allies, by contrast, lost about 300 troops in the conflict. Pending complete compliance, economic sanctions would continue. Immediately following the invasion, the United Nations issued Resolution 660 which condemned Iraq's actions. As the other allies gradually left the coalition, U.S. and British aircraft continued to patrol Iraqi skies, and UN inspectors sought to guarantee that all illicit weapons were destroyed. The Gulf War began when Saddam Hussein's Iraq invaded Kuwait on August 2, 1990. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Persian-Gulf-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - The Gulf War 1990/1991, U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian - The Gulf War, Social Studies for Kids - Persian Gulf War, Persian Gulf War - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Persian Gulf War - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Dubbed Operation Desert Storm, the coalition offensive saw aircraft fly from bases in Saudi Arabia and carriers in the Persian Gulf and Red Sea. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Iraq characterized its war with Iran as a defensive action against the spread of the Islamic revolution not only to Iraq but to other gulf countries and to the wider Arab world and portrayed itself as “the eastern gate to the…, For nearly two years after the UN-brokered cease-fire in the Persian Gulf, the governments of Iraq and Iran failed to initiate conversations toward a permanent peace treaty. On August 3 the United Nations Security Council called for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait, and on August 6 the council imposed a worldwide ban on trade with Iraq. The approach to warfare between these two groups of warriors was also different. Iraq thereafter refused to readmit inspectors into the country, and regular exchanges of fire between Iraqi forces and U.S. and British aircraft over the no-fly zones continued into the 21st century. SIMILARITIES This was followed by a brief ground campaign commencing on February 24 which liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraq before a ceasefire took effect on the 28th. M1A1 Abrams main battle tanks of the U.S. 1st Armored Division moving across the desert in northern Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War, February 1991. (The Iraqi government responded by formally annexing Kuwait on August 8.) Operation Desert Sabre, a massive allied ground offensive, was launched northward from northeastern Saudi Arabia into Kuwait and southern Iraq on February 24, and within three days Arab and U.S. forces had retaken Kuwait city in the face of crumbling Iraqi resistance. As the fall passed, a multi-national force assembled in Saudi Arabia to defend that nation and to prepare for the liberation of Kuwait. While US Marine divisions and Arab forces advanced into Kuwait from the south, fixing the Iraqis in place, VII Corps attacked north into Iraq to the west. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Gulf War II synonyms, Gulf War II pronunciation, Gulf War II translation, English dictionary definition of Gulf War II. On 23 January 2007, in the 2007 State of the Union Address, ... States' soft power, the effect the war had on the United States economy, and the legacy of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. Following the Gulf War, ... a job program for Iraqis, more reconstruction proposals, and $1.2 billion for these programs. This "left hook" caught the Iraqis by surprise and resulted in the surrender of large numbers of enemy troops. Persian Gulf War, also called Gulf War, (1990–91), international conflict that was triggered by Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990. Quickly gaining air superiority, coalition air forces began a systematic attack on enemy military targets. George H.W. The allied coalition’s military offensive against Iraq began on January 16–17, 1991, with a massive U.S.-led air campaign that continued throughout the war. Immediately condemned by the international community, Iraq was sanctioned by the United Nations and given an ultimatum to withdraw by January 15, 1991. These actions prompted the allies to prohibit Iraqi aircraft from operating in designated “no-fly” zones over these areas. Subsequent resolutions placed sanctions on Iraq and later required Iraqi forces to withdraw by January 15, 1991 or face military action. By mid-February the allies had shifted their air attacks to Iraq’s forward ground forces in Kuwait and southern Iraq, destroying their fortifications and tanks. In addition, Iraqi forces attacked the Saudi city of Khafji on January 29, but were driven back. Photograph Courtesy of the US Department of Defense, George H. W. Bush, Forty-First President of the United States, U.S. Policy in the Middle East: 1945 to 2008, Biography of Saddam Hussein, Dictator of Iraq, Impacts of the Iraq War on the Middle East, M.S., Information and Library Science, Drexel University, B.A., History and Political Science, Pennsylvania State University. Iraq’s invasion and the potential threat it then posed to Saudi Arabia, the world’s largest oil producer and exporter, prompted the United States and its western European NATO allies to rush troops to Saudi Arabia to deter a possible attack. By the time that U.S. Pres. Bush declared a cease-fire for February 28, Iraqi resistance had completely collapsed. An underlying factor in these disputes was the Iraqi argument that Kuwait was rightfully part of Iraq and that its existence was a British invention in the wake of World War I. On August 2, Iraqi forces launched a surprise attack against Kuwait and quickly overran the country. Over the next few weeks, this sustained aerial bombardment, which had been named Operation Desert Storm, destroyed Iraq’s air defenses before attacking its communications networks, government buildings, weapons plants, oil refineries, and bridges and roads. In approximately 100 hours of fighting, coalition forces shattered the Iraqi army before Pres. Initial attacks targeted the Iraqi air force and anti-aircraft infrastructure before moving on to disabling the Iraqi command and control network. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Gulf+War+II. A protracted military conflict in Iraq that began in 2003 with an attack by a coalition of forces led by the United States and that resulted in the overthrow of Saddam Hussein's regime. Despite requests, neither nation was willing to forgive these debts. On January 17, coalition aircraft began an intense aerial campaign against Iraqi targets. When Saddam refused to leave, U.S. and allied forces launched an attack on Iraq on March 20 and thus began what became known as the Iraq War. George H.W. Meanwhile, the main U.S. armoured thrust drove into Iraq some 120 miles (200 km) west of Kuwait and attacked Iraq’s armoured reserves from the rear.
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